The history of German Christmas markets

If you’ve ever been to Germany in December, you are likely familiar with the Christmas markets that decorate almost every city. Christmas markets can be found in many countries today, but they originated in the German-speaking part of the Roman Empire and remain a big part of German culture today.

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German Christmas markets date back to the Middle Ages, when townspeople held winter markets as an opportunity to stock up on food and supplies to get them through the colder months. These open-air markets were usually only open for a day or a few days – just enough time to allow people to buy what they needed. A famous example of this is Vienna’s Dezembermarkt (“December market”), which was first held between 1294 and 1296 and sold goods for the winter.

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Over time, the wintertime markets began to evolve. Craftsmen began to set up stands selling products such as toys and woodcarvings, which people bought as gifts for Christmas and New Year’s. It is believed that some of the oldest Christmas markets were first held in Dresden in 1434, in Bautzen in 1384, in Frankfurt in 1393 and in Munich in 1310, although some of these may have had more of a resemblance to wintertime markets. The Protestant Reformation also had an impact on the markets. When the markets first came into being, they were often associated with Saint Nicholas (Munich’s first market was called the Nikolausdult). After the Protestant Reformation, the markets gradually became associated with the Christkindl (“Christ child”) instead – and in 1805 Munich changed the name of its market to the Christkindlmarkt. Parents started to tell their children that the Christkindl would deliver gifts on Christmas. As time passed, all of Germany’s winter markets evolved into Christmas markets.

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Today, there are so many Christmas markets in Germany that it is almost impossible not to stumble upon one if you’re there during the Advent season. And even the United States has countless Christmas markets of its own. If you haven’t already, take a look at our list of German-style Christmas markets in the US!

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