Did you know these everyday objects were invented in Germany?

Inventors from around the world are converging on Nürnberg from Oct. 31 to Nov. 1 to present their inventions at Germany‘s annual trade fair for ideas and inventions (the Ideen-Erfindungen-Neuheiten-Austellung, also known as iENA). The fair is the largest of its kind; since it was first held in 1948, more than 300,000 inventions were presented to the public – including inline skates, wheeled suitcases and folding bicycles. Inventors from all over the world are expected to display over 800 inventions.

In light of this fair, let’s take a look at some inventions that you may not have known are German!

©dpa / picture alliance

Aspirin

Many of us depend on aspirin to cure us of our pains. But few may know that aspirin was invented by a German chemist, Felix Hoffman. The Swabian-born chemist initially developed the drug for his aligning father, but got a patent for it in 1899.

©dpa / picture alliance

Contact Lenses

German ophthalmologist Dr. Adolf Gaston Eugen Fick invented the first contact lens in 1887, which he created from heavy brown glass. And no – the first contact lenses were not comfortable to wear, and they could only be worn for a few short hours at a time!

©dpa / picture alliance

Coffee filter

The coffee filter was invented by a housewife from Dresden named Melitta Bentz. Using blotting paper from her children’s school books, she removed coffee grounds from her brew, making it less bitter and smoother. She was granted a patent in 1908 and sold 1,200 coffee filters at the 1909 Leipzig Fair.

©dpa / picture alliance

Jeans

German-American businessman Levi Strauss and his partner Jacob Davis patented the first pair of blue jeans in 1873. Back then, they were considered workwear and worn primarily cowboys and miners. Today, they are quite the fashion statement!

Other popular German inventions are mayonnaise, x-ray machines, the printing press, the accordion, hole punchers, ring binders and the petri dish. Let’s see what new inventions Germans have at this weekend’s iENA fair in Nürnberg!

By Nicole Glass, German Embassy

Word of the Week: Kobold

© Wikimedia Commons

With Halloween just around the corner, Americans are excitedly gathering for haunted hayrides, telling scary stories around campfires, and searching for frightening costumes. At this time of year, it’s common to hear stories about the chupacabra, Bigfoot, and the headless horseman.

Mythological creatures exist throughout the world, but let’s take a look at one that has existed in German folklore for centuries. A popular supernatural creature is the Kobold, a mischievous household spirit that is usually invisible, but will occasionally materialize, taking the form of a human, an animal, or an object. An ill-tempered Kobold might, for example, take the form of a feather, descend onto the nose of a sleeping homeowner, and trigger a sneeze.

Most images of a Kobold depict small, human-like figures often dressed like peasants. But there are many types of Kobolds. Some are friendly spirits that live in one’s home, taking care of chores and playing malicious tricks if they feel upset, neglected or insulted. Others live underground, haunting old mines. Some reside on ships, accompanying sailors as they navigate the open seas (this type of Kobold is called a Klaubautermann).

The origin of the Kobold and its etymology remains shrouded in mystery, but this mythical creature is believed to have emerged from Pagan customs many centuries ago.

There are numerous other legendary German creatures that are closely related to the original Kobold, such as the Heinzelmännchen (house gnomes). But while the Heinzelmännchen are good-natured creatures that tend to the house, Kobolds also have a darker side to them, often wreaking havoc. In some cases, the damage Kobolds inflict might resemble that imposed by a poltergeist.

© dpa / picture-alliance

Frankenstein Castle: One of Germany’s spookiest places

With Halloween just around the corner, let’s take a look at one of Germany’s creepiest places: Frankenstein Castle.

Frankenstein Castle sits on a hilltop overlooking the city of Darmstadt. It was constructed sometime before the year 1250 by Lord Conrad II Reiz of Breuberg, who founded the free imperial Barony of Frankenstein. Over the coming centuries, the castle was home to various different families and witnessed several territorial conflicts. In 1673, Johann Conrad Dippel – who later became an alchemist – was born in the castle. The structure fell into ruins in the 18th century and was restored in the mid-19th century.

The most famous story is, of course, that of the alchemist who worked in the castle in the 17th century. He was known to experiment with strange potions. He supposedly created an animal oil (which he named “Dippel’s Oil”) that was a so-called “elixir of life”. There are also rumors that the man studied anatomy and conducted experiements on cadavers, some of which he dug up himself from graves. There is no evidence that proves that any of this happened, but local people believe the legends are true.

Continue reading “Frankenstein Castle: One of Germany’s spookiest places”

Word of the Week: Witzbold

From Friedrich Nietzsche to Immanuel Kant and Heinrich Heine, Germany has long been home to philosophers, poets, scientists and other great thinkers. Germans are often stereotyped as being “too serious” and often accused of lacking a sense of humor. A German Witzbold, however, contradicts all of these stereotypes.

The German word Witz means “joke”, and a Witzbold is a type of joker or prankster who loves to be entertained. We’re sure you’ve met one, whether it was your high school’s class clown or that friend who loves to mess with you. When a Witzbold isn’t busy cracking jokes, you might find him playing pranks on others to get a good laugh – all in good nature, of course. Synonyms for Witzbold are Spaßvogel (“humor bird”) and Scherzkeks (“prank cookie”).

But being called a Witzbold is not always a good thing; sometimes jokes can go too far, becoming a nuisance to others. In many cases, there is a negative connotation to being called a Witzbold. So make sure you know when your humor is unwanted – it’s always best to strike a healthy balance!

By Nicole Glass, German Embassy

American pilot shot down in WWII makes emotional return to German town

A remarkable story of German-American friendship recently took place in the small town of Gerolzhofen between Frankfurt and Nürnberg. A former American pilot who was shot down over Germany and taken in war captivity is visiting the place where he almost lost his life for the first time in 76 years.

Roland Martin was a pilot of the “Iron Maiden” on October 14, 1943 as part of America’s second major attack on a ball bearing factory in Schweinfurt. As the youngest pilot of the US Air Force at that time, his plane and those of other pilots were shot down shortly before his 20th birthday. Six pilots had already left the plane with parachutes; the rest had to face an emergency landing. Due to the high losses, this day went down in US history as the “Black Thursday”. Although all 10 crew members survived the emergency landing, Martin was picked up by German ground troops after two weeks on the run. As a prisoner of war he remained in a prison camp at the Baltic Sea until the end of the war. The fact that today, despite this history, he came back to the scene of the events shows how much German-American relations have developed in times of peace.

Norbert Vollmann

This history of enmity between Germany and the USA has found a moving and happy end, which we owe also to the Americans, who committed themselves to a peaceful reconstruction of Germany after the war.

Roland was visibly touched by his visit to the launch site, especially by the frankness of the Germans. It shows that friendships can nevertheless emerge from death, suffering and destruction in war. “Today we meet as friends” summarizes Gerolzhofen’s mayor Thorsten Wozniak. When Roland received the honor to write down a few words in the Golden Book of the City of Gerolzhofen, the 95-year-old was in tears. 

Norbert Vollmann

Next year marks the 75th anniversary of the end of the Second World War. There are many sad stories to remember, but also rays of hope, just like the connection between Roland Martin and Germany that shows that over time enemies can become friends. We look back on decades of support from America and are grateful that we live together in friendship and peace today.

original story by Norbert Vollmann
English adaptation by Kimberly Klebolte

Word of the Week: Schlafmütze

Are you nodding off at your desk, even after three cups of coffee? Can’t get out of bed in the mornings? Are you always late and missing opportunities? Sounds like you might be a Schlafmütze!

Directly translated, this German word means “nightcap”, but the closest English equivalent of its meaning would be a “sleepy head” or a “zombie”.

In modern German language, a Schlafmütze usually refers to a person who is always tired, lazy and slow, spaced out and late all the time or unable to roll out of bed. But in the olden days, this word simply defined the nightcap that people wore to bed to keep warm. Before central heating was available, homes in northern Europe were often very cold – especially in the winter. To keep warm, Europeans would wear nightcaps when they went to sleep. Women usually wrapped a long piece of cloth around their heads, while men had more pointed caps with a long tip that could sometimes be used as a scarf.

Due to the availability of central heating, nightcaps are no longer used, but paintings, books and movies about the pre-industrial days often depict people wearing them in the comfort of their homes.

In addition to sleepwear, nightcaps were used throughout the 19th century to secure bandages that were applied to head injuries.

But ever since the 18th century, the word Schlafmütze has also been used to define a sleepy or lazy person. Someone who sleeps in until noon every day would be considered a Schlafmütze. And even if you sleep late just once, you might inherit the title by a friend or relative who rolls their eyes at your habits. So get out of bed and make sure you’re not a Schlafmütze! After all, there’s probably plenty of things you could do instead.

A 19th century painting by Wilhelm Busch depicts a man wearing a Schlafmütze. © dpa / picture alliance

By Nicole Glass, German Embassy

Word of the Week: Begrüßungsgeld

The German word Begrüßungsgeld means “welcome money”. Free money? Pretty much. And lots of people wanted it.

The idea of “welcome money” is a concept that was created by the West German government in 1970. Begrüßungsgeld was a monetary gift from the Federal Republic of Germany to visitors from the eastern side the German Democratic Republic.

In those rare instances where East Germans were approved to visit the West, the GDR only allowed them to exchange 70 East-German Marks into West-German DM (by 1989, it had been reduced to 15 M per year -enough to buy a couple of groceries but not much more).

The monetary restriction made it difficult for East Germans to travel to the West, which prompted the West German government to introduce the Begrüßungsgeld. GDR citizens who visited the West were given 30 DM of “welcome money” up to twice a year, paid out at a city or local government. By 1988, they were entitled to 100 DM per year. The West German government’s Begrüßungsgeld therefore made it possible for a greater number of East Germans to pay a visit to the other side – assuming, of course, that their visitation request was approved by the GDR first.

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Naturally, when the Berlin Wall fell, thousands of East Germans flocked to the West German city and local governments to claim their promised 100 DM. In only three weeks following the fall of the wall, millions of people claimed their “welcome money”, costing the West German government 1.8 billion DM. And between November and December 1989, an estimated 3-4 billion DM was paid out in “welcome money”. The demand for this Begrüßungsgeld was so high on November 9 and 10, 1989, that Berlin mayor Walter Momper ordered banks to make the Begrüßungsgeld payouts. Long lines formed outside of West German banks as millions of East Germans lined up for the cash.

The West German government never expected to be paying such large sums of money in such a short amount of time, and ended its Begrüßungsgeld payouts on December 29, 1989. Those who didn’t claim it earlier were out of luck.

But for millions of Germans, the Begrüßungsgeld helped them with the transition to a reunified Germany.

And in July 1990, the DM became Germany’s sole currency, which it kept until adopting the Euro at the turn of the century.

©dpa / picture alliance

By Nicole Glass, German Embassy

Word of the Week: Republikflucht

When East Germans escaped over the inner German border during the Cold War, the German Democratic Republic (GDR) described their actions as Republikflucht, which means “desertion from the republic“ or “flight from the republic.” Additionally, the word Republikflüchtlinge describes “deserters from the republic.”

When used by GDR authorities to speak of deserters, the word had a negative connotation, associating them with a crime against the state. The word closely resembles the more generalized Fahnenflucht, which literally means “desertion from the flag” and in this case refers to military desertion. The word Republikflucht therefore invoked similar feelings of betrayal against the state, and specifically referred to escape from the GDR.

Millions of Germans fled the east during the post-war period before the Berlin Wall was erected in 1961 – and even after its erection, several thousand others managed to escape. Some even obtained permits to visit the west, never to return again. Many who attempted Republikflucht, however, were shot at the border. Tens of thousands of others were imprisoned for up to eight years for their attempts.

The GDR publicly condemned the actions of Republikflüchtlinge, and in 1955 outlined the seriousness of such a crime in a booklet published by the Socialist Unity Party of Germany.

A woman is pulled out of a tunnel through which she escaped from East Berlin to the West on October 5, 1964. In total, 57 people escaped through this tunnel German Missions in the United States Welcome to Germany.info before it was discovered by East German border guards.

“Leaving the GDR is an act of political and moral backwardness and depravity,” the booklet says. “…Workers throughout Germany will demand punishment for those who today leave the German Democratic Republic, the strong bastion of the fight for peace, to serve the deadly enemy of the German people, the imperialists and militarists.”

Today, the word Republikflucht is one of many unique words associated with the GDR, and is often used to describe the many escape attempts from the communist regime. If you are reading German history related to the fall of the wall, this is a term you will surely come across – a term that partially defines the way we remember the effects of the Cold War.

By Nicole Glass, German Embassy

Word of the Week: “Ossi” & “Wessi”

When the Berlin Wall fell in 1989, generalized nicknames arose to distinguish people who lived on either side of the border. Those in the west were informally referred to as Wessis (“from the West”) and those in the east were called Ossis (in German, Ost means “east”).

Depending on the context in which they were used, these nicknames were occasionally perceived to be offensive. On some occasions, however, they were used simply to distinguish between the Easterners and the Westerners, without any harm intended. But often, their use was based on common stereotypes assigned to Germans from either side of the wall.

“Did you see what that Wessi is wearing?!” one might, for example, have heard on the street during a divided Germany – or shortly after its reunification.

Wessis were often stereotyped as capitalistic, arrogant and rich, while Ossis were often stereotyped as paranoid, poor and socialistic. Even after German reunification, stereotypes continued to live on for many years – and to some extent still exist today, even if there is little truth behind them. Ossi Wessi jokes were common in the late 1980s and early 1990s, and can occasionally still be heard among those who grew up in Cold War Germany.

But regardless of the negative characteristics often assigned to Ossis and Wessis, the nicknames became deeply integrated into German culture before, during and after reunification. Additionally, nicknames such as Besserwessi (“better-knowing-Wessi” or, in other words, “know-it-all”) and Jammer-Ossi (“whining easterner”) also sprung up from these terms.

The distinguishing nicknames demonstrate how deeply Germany was divided not just geographically, but also culturally, and how Germans perceived each other at the time.

©dpa / picture alliance

The year 2019 marks the 30th anniversary since the fall of the Berlin Wall, which means Germany has been one nation for three decades. While there are still some who label themselves – or others – as Ossis and Wessis, it is an increasingly rarer distinction as Germans gather in celebration of the achievements they have made as one nation.

But as you read about the fall of the wall and Germany’s reunification, it’s likely you’ll come across the words Ossi and Wessi. Just make sure not to label anyone with them!

By Nicole Glass, German Embassy

This map shows every single Oktoberfest in Minnesota… (we could find)

It’s that time of the year again! Oktoberfest in Munich kicks off ever so soon!

That means soon the beer tap will be broken and cries of “O’ Zapft is” will ring in the festival and celebration. Beers will be poured, songs will be sung, dances will be…danced.

Picture this: thousands of people, dozens of huge tents, a ferris wheel and some carousels – This world-renowned folk festival is held annually in Bavaria and attracts more than six million people from around the world in search of German beer, music, and food. Locally, it is often called the Wiesn, after the colloquial name for the fairgrounds.

But until Munich Oktoberfest arrives, we’re on the hunt for other Oktoberfests around the USA. And since we’ve spent our weekend at St. Paul Oktoberfest in Minnesota, we thought we’d track down every single Oktoberfest in Minnesota that we could find. Our source for the map is Funtober’s article: “OKTOBERFEST IN MINNESOTA”.

Here are the towns and cities with Oktoberfest. Some even more than one!

Pierz, MN

St. Paul, MN

Stillwater, MN

Longville, MN

Minneapolis, MN

East Grand Forks, MN

Grand Forks, MN

Delano, MN

Grand Marais, MN

Shakopee, MN

New Ulm, MN

Gull Lake, MN

Pelican Rapids, MN

Deerwood, MN

What did we miss? What state should we do next?
@GermanyinUSA

By William Fox, German Embassy